Author(s): Sakaguchi Y, Hatta T, Hayashi T, Shoji T, Suzuki A
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nocturnal hypoxemia is highly prevalent among patients with CKD. Nocturnal hypoxemia contributes to systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial cell dysfunction, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which are common pathologic mechanisms of CKD progression. This study investigated whether nocturnal hypoxemia is independently associated with CKD progression.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This two-center retrospective cohort study included 161 patients with stages 3-4 CKD enrolled from January of 2009 to July of 2011 with a body mass index less than 25.0 kg/m(2). The 4% oxygen desaturation index, the number of events per hour in which oxygen saturation decreases by >4% during sleep, was measured, and the declining rate of the estimated GFR was followed over 1 year. The severity of nocturnal hypoxemia was categorized as none (oxygen desaturation index<5.0), mild (5.0≤oxygen desaturation index<15.0), or moderate to severe (15.0≤oxygen desaturation index).
RESULTS: The mean estimated GFR of the total cohort at baseline was 31 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Eighty patients (49.7%) were diagnosed with nocturnal hypoxemia; 64 patients were diagnosed with mild nocturnal hypoxemia, and 16 patients were diagnosed with moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia. The estimated GFR declined three- to fourfold faster in patients with moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia than patients with no or mild nocturnal hypoxemia (the mean values [95% confidence intervals] were -2.14 [-1.06 to -3.21], -3.02 [-1.31 to -4.74], and -8.59 [-2.00 to -15.2] ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year in the no, mild, and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia groups, respectively; P=0.003). Nocturnal hypoxemia remained a significant predictor of decline in estimated GFR after adjustment for various baseline clinical factors.
CONCLUSIONS: In nonobese patients with CKD, nocturnal hypoxemia is an independent risk factor of a rapid decline in kidney function.Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy