Author(s): Niyazoglu M, Baykara O, Koc A, Aydodu P, Onaran I,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Graves Disease (GD) is an autoimmune disorder affected by an interaction of multiple genes such as Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB), Nuclear Factor-κB Inhibitor (NF-κBIA), Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) and cytokines like Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and mostly accompanied by an ocular disorder, Graves Ophthalmopathy (GO). We hypothesize that there is a relationship between GD, GO, polymorphisms of inflammatory related genes and their association with cytokines, which may play important roles in autoimmune and inflammatory processes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To confirm our hypothesis, we studied the polymorphisms and cytokine levels of 120 patients with GD and GO using PCR-RFLP and ELISA methods, respectively. RESULTS: We found that patients with GG genotype and carriers of G allele of PARP-1 G1672A polymorphism are at risk in the group having GD (p=0.0007) while having GA genotype may be protective against the disease. PARP-1 C410T polymorphism was found to be associated with GO by increasing the risk by 1.7 times (p=0.004). Another risk factor for development of GO was the polymorphism of del/ins of NFkB1 gene (p=0.032) that increases the risk by 39\%. Levels of cytokines were also elevated in patients with GD, but no association was found between levels of cytokines and the development of GO as there was no change in levels of cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that, PARP-1 and NFkB1 gene polymorphisms may be risk factors for developing Graves Disease and Ophthalmopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Gene
and referenced in International Journal of Inflammation, Cancer and Integrative Therapy