alexa Association of warfarin use with valvular and vascular calcification: a review.
Chemistry

Chemistry

Chemical Sciences Journal

Author(s): Palaniswamy C, Sekhri A, Aronow WS, Kalra A, Peterson SJ

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Abstract Vitamin K is required for the activity of various biologically active proteins in our body. Apart from clotting factors, vitamin K-dependent proteins include regulatory proteins like protein C, protein S, protein Z, osteocalcin, growth arrest-specific gene 6 protein, and matrix Gla protein. Glutamic acid residues in matrix Gla protein are γ-carboxylated by vitamin K-dependent γ-carboxylase, which enables it to inhibit calcification. Warfarin, being a vitamin K antagonist, inhibits this process, and has been associated with calcification in various animal and human studies. Though no specific guidelines are currently available to prevent or treat this less-recognized side effect, discontinuing warfarin and using an alternative anticoagulant seems to be a reasonable option. Newer anticoagulants such as dabigatran and rivaroxaban offer promise as future therapeutic options in such cases. Drugs including statins, alendronate, osteoprotegerin, and vitamin K are currently under study as therapies to prevent or treat warfarin-associated calcification. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article was published in Clin Cardiol and referenced in Chemical Sciences Journal

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