Author(s): Lindstrm AK, Stendahl U, Tot T, Hellberg D
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Abstract BACKGROUND AND AIM: To study possible associations between selected tumor markers and co-factors in squamous cell cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten biological tumor markers representing different functions in carcinogenesis were diagnosed in 128 cases of squamous cell cervical cancer. These were p53, c-myc, EGFR, COX-2, CD4+, VEGF, E-cadherin, CD44, Ki-67 (MIB-1), and p27. Smoking habits and previous oral contraceptive use were registered. Serum estradiol and progesterone levels were evaluated in 80 women. Each marker was compared to these four variables. RESULTS: Highly significant assocations were found between strong c-myc staining (> or = 50\%) and increased serum progesterone (p = 0.01), a low EGFR staining (< 20\%) and high serum estradiol (p = 0.0007), and an absence of p53 staining and smoking (p = 0.008). There was a association between the absence of p53 and high serum progesterone (p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: The study supports a role of progesterone as a promoter of cervical cancer and indicates that smoking is associated with tumor development.
This article was published in Anticancer Res
and referenced in Translational Medicine