Author(s): Xu F, Ulmer JB
The discovery that genes can be functionally transferred from bacteria to mammalian cells has suggested the possible use of bacterial vectors as gene delivery vehicles for vaccines. Attenuated invasive human intestinal bacteria, such as Salmonella and Shigella, have been used as plasmid DNA vaccine carriers and their potency has been evaluated in several animal models. This delivery system allows the administration of DNA vaccines together with associated bacterial immunostimulators directly to professional antigen presenting cells via human mucosal surfaces. Various strategies have been taken to improve the use of this delivery system to achieve robust immune responses at both mucosal and systemic sites of the immunized animals.