Author(s): Blasco Pelicano M, Rodrguez de Crdoba S, Campistol Plana JM
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Abstract The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical entity characterized by thrombocytopenia, non-immune hemolytic anemia and renal impairment. Kidney pathology shows thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with endothelial cell injury leading to thrombotic occlusion of arterioles and capillaries. Traditionally, HUS was classified in 2 forms: Typical HUS, most frequently occurring in children and caused by Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, and atypical HUS (aHUS). aHUS is associated with mutations in complement genes in 50-60\% of patients and has worse prognosis, with the majority of patients developing end stage renal disease. After kidney transplantation HUS may develop as a recurrence of aHUS or as de novo disease. Over the last years, many studies have demonstrated that complement dysregulation underlies the endothelial damage that triggers the development of TMA in most of these patients. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of aHUS, together with the availability of novel therapeutic options, will enable better strategies for the early diagnosis and etiological treatment, which are changing the natural history of aHUS. This review summarizes the aHUS clinical entity and describes the role of complement dysregulation in the pathogenesis of aHUS. Finally, we review the differential diagnosis and the therapeutic options available to patients with aHUS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Med Clin (Barc)
and referenced in Journal of Kidney