Author(s): Dragun D, Philippe A, Catar R, Hegner B
Antibodies directed against G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) can act as allosteric receptor agonists or antagonists. Prototypic disease for agonistic antibody action is a Graves disease of the thyroid gland where antibodies that stimulate G-protein coupled thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) were first described 50 years ago. Myasthenia gravis is the prototype for antagonistic autoimmune actions, where antibodies directed against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cause blockade of neuromuscular junctions. Antibodies and B-cells are increasingly recognised as major modulators of various cardiovascular and renal pathologies. We aim to critically review the notion that antibodies targeting other GPCRs may amplify or cause various cardiovascular and renal pathologies and summarise the current state of research, as well as perspectives in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. In terms of targets we will focus on the alpha-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1)AR), the beta-adrenergic receptor (beta(1)AR), and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R).