Author(s): Yordy B, Tal MC, Hayashi K, Arojo O, Iwasaki A
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Abstract Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient process eukaryotic cells utilize to remove and recycle intracellular material in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. In metazoans, the autophagy machinery not only functions in this capacity but also has evolved to perform a diverse repertoire of intracellular transport and regulatory functions. In response to virus infections, the autophagy machinery degrades viruses, shuttles viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns to endosomes containing Toll-like receptors, facilitates viral-antigen processing for major histocompatibility complex presentation and transports antiviral proteins to viral replication sites. This is accomplished through canonical autophagy or through processes involving distinct subsets of the autophagy-related genes (Atgs). Herein, we discuss how the variable components of the autophagy machinery contribute to antiviral defense and highlight three emerging themes: first, autophagy delivers viral cytosolic components to several distinct endolysosomal compartments; second, Atg proteins act alone, as subgroups or collectively; and third, the specificity of autophagy and the autophagy machinery is achieved by recognition of triggers and selective targeting by adaptors.
This article was published in Int Immunol
and referenced in Clinical Microbiology: Open Access