Author(s): Ojha R, Bhattacharyya S, Singh SK
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Cancer cells require an uninterrupted nutritional supply for maintaining their proliferative needs and this high demand in concurrence with inadequate supply of blood and nutrition induces stress in these cells. These cells utilize various strategies like high glycolytic flux, redox signaling, and modulation of autophagy to avoid cell death and overcome nutritional deficiency. Autophagy allows the cell to generate ATP and other essential biochemical building blocks necessary under such adverse conditions. It is emerging as a decisive process in the development and progression of pathophysiological conditions that are associated with increased cancer risk. However, the precise role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is still debatable. Autophagy is a novel cytoprotective process to augment tumor cell survival under nutrient or growth factor starvation, metabolic stress, and hypoxia. The tumor hypoxic environment may provide site for the enrichment/expansion of the cancer stem cells (CSCs) and successive rapid tumor progression. CSCs are characteristically resistant to conventional anticancer therapy, which may contribute to treatment failure and tumor relapse. CSCs have the potential to regenerate for an indefinite period, which can impel tumor metastatic invasion. From last decade, preclinical research has focused on the diversity in CSC content within tumors that could affect their chemo- or radio-sensitivity by impeding with mechanisms of DNA repair and cell cycle progression. The aim of this review is predominantly directed on the recent developments in the CSCs during cancer treatment, role of autophagy in maintenance of CSC populations and their implications in the development of promising new cancer treatment options in future.
This article was published in Biores Open Access
and referenced in Journal of Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy