alexa Bacterial decolonization and degradation of azo dyes.
Materials Science

Materials Science

Research & Reviews: Journal of Material Sciences

Author(s): Anjali Pandey, Poonam Singh, Leela Iyengar

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Azo compounds constitute the largest and the most diverse group of synthetic dyes and are widely used in a number of industries such as textile, food, cosmetics and paper printing. They are generally recalcitrant to biodegradation due to their xenobiotic nature. However microorganisms, being highly versatile, have developed enzyme systems for the decolorization and mineralization of azo dyes under certain environmental conditions. Several genera of Basidomycetes have been shown to mineralize azo dyes. Reductive cleavage of azo bond, leading to the formation of aromatic amines, is the initial reaction during the bacterial metabolism of azo dyes. Anaerobic/anoxic azo dye decolorization by several mixed and pure bacterial cultures have been reported. Under these conditions, this reaction is non-specific with respect to organisms as well as dyes. Various mechanisms, which include enzymatic as well as low molecular weight redox mediators, have been proposed for this non-specific reductive cleavage. Only few aerobic bacterial strains that can utilize azo dyes as growth substrates have been isolated. These organisms generally have a narrow substrate range. Degradation of aromatic amines depends on their chemical structure and the conditions. It is now known that simple aromatic amines can be mineralized under methanogenic conditions. Sulfonated aromatic amines, on the other hand, are resistant and require specialized aerobic microbial consortia for their mineralization. This review is focused on the bacterial decolorization of azo dyes and mineralization of aromatic amines, as well as the application of these processes for the treatment of azo-dye-containing wastewaters.

This article was published in Int Biodeterior Biodegr and referenced in Research & Reviews: Journal of Material Sciences

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