Author(s): Sandhu SK, Silka MJ, Reller MD
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Abstract Balloon aortic valvuloplasty is a safe and effective treatment for aortic stenosis in neonates, children, and young adults. The indication for balloon valvuloplasty in children is a peak systolic gradient > 70 mmHg or > 50 mmHg in any patient with symptoms. Published results indicate that the procedure results in an acute reduction in gradient ranging from 49\%-70\%, and this reduction appears to persist through at least an intermediate follow-up. The percentage reduction in gradient is similar for neonates as well as older children. In neonates, it is imperative to evaluate the size of the left ventricle prior to balloon valvuloplasty since mortality is highest in those with variants of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Though morbidity and mortality is higher in the neonatal age group, the results are similar to those following surgical intervention. In children older than 1 month of age, the major complication is the development of aortic regurgitation, although it usually appears to be well-tolerated. Previous surgical valvotomy is not a contraindication to balloon aortic valvuloplasty. In the current era, we believe that balloon aortic valvuloplasty should be considered as the first option in neonates, children and young adults with significant aortic valve obstruction.
This article was published in J Interv Cardiol
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