Author(s): Beekman RH, Rocchini AP, Andes A
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Abstract Between 1986 and July 1990, balloon valvuloplasty was attempted in eight newborns (less than 28 days of age) with isolated critical aortic valve stenosis. Balloon valvuloplasty could not be successfully accomplished in any of the three infants presenting before 1989. Since March 1989, when improved catheter technology became available, all five neonates presenting with critical aortic stenosis were treated successfully by balloon valvuloplasty. A transumbilical approach was utilized in all four infants in whom umbilical artery access could be obtained. One newborn who was 25 days of age underwent transfemoral balloon valvuloplasty. Balloon valvuloplasty was immediately successful in all five newborns, as evidenced by a decrease in valve gradient and improvement in left ventricular function and cardiac output. Peak systolic gradient was reduced by 64\% from 69 +/- 8 to 25 +/- 3 mm Hg (p = 0.005). Left ventricular systolic pressure decreased from 128 +/- 9 to 95 +/- 9 mm Hg (p = 0.02) and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure decreased from 20 +/- 2 to 11 +/- 1 mm Hg (p = 0.02). Moderate (2+) aortic regurgitation was documented in two infants after valvuloplasty. The time from first catheter insertion to valve dilation averaged 57 +/- 14 min (range 26 to 94) and the median length of the hospital stay was 4 days. With the use of recently available catheters, the transumbilical technique of balloon valvuloplasty can be performed quickly, safely and effectively in the newborn with critical aortic stenosis. It does not require general anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass or a left ventricular apical incision and it preserves the femoral arteries for future transcatheter intervention should significant aortic stenosis recur.
This article was published in J Am Coll Cardiol
and referenced in Cardiovascular Therapy: Open Access