Author(s): Xanthakos SA
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: This review will summarize current indications, limitations and outcomes of bariatric surgery in adolescents, as well as provide an overview of the physiologic effects of bariatric surgery on enteric hormones involved in regulating appetite, satiation and maintenance of weight. RESULTS: Extreme obesity (BMI≥99 percentile) now affects 4\% of children and adolescents in the United States. Traditional dietary and behavioral weight management methods have no demonstrated efficacy for extremely obese children and adolescents, in contrast with bariatric surgery which has produced significant and sustainable weight loss and associated improvements in comorbid diseases for the extremely obese. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are the most commonly performed bariatric surgical procedures in adolescents, but vertical sleeve gastrectomy may be a promising new option for selected extremely obese adolescents. A mean weight loss of 37-40\% is achieved in adolescents after RYGB, with LAGB showing similar results, albeit attained at a slower rate. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the enteric hormones involved in the gut-brain axis that regulates appetite and energy expenditure may play a role in both the anorexigenic and weight-reducing effects of certain bariatric surgical procedures. In particular, RYGB induces a rise in both fasting and post-prandial peptide tyrosine-tyrosine which could contribute to the more rapid and greater degree of weight loss than is seen with LAGB. Limitations of bariatric surgery however include the potential for post-operative morbidity and mortality, as well as possible weight regain in a small proportion of patients.
This article was published in Pathophysiology
and referenced in Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy