alexa Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.
Business & Management

Business & Management

Business and Economics Journal

Author(s): Peters DH, Elmendorf AE, Kandola K, Chellaraj G

Abstract Share this page

Abstract There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries.
This article was published in Bull World Health Organ and referenced in Business and Economics Journal

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Muhamed Fakhri Omer
    Cathodoluminescence petrography for provenance studies of the sandstones of Ora Formation (Devonian-Carboniferous), Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Mustafa M Hariri
    Importance of methods’ selection in the geosciences studies and exploration
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Afsar Rahbar
    Studies of the importance of Cytomegalovirus infection in breast cancer
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Jim Polarine
    Case studies of human fl ora and spore contamination in clean rooms
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Gulay Yelken Demirel
    Challenges in parenteral formulation development studies and an evaluation from QbD point of view
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Jianfeng Hong
    Extractable and leachable studies of parenteral infusion and transfusion products
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Jianbo Wang
    Transcriptome and small RNA gene expression changes in synthetic allohexaploids of
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Arny L Blanchard
    Long-term environmental studies and stewardship in Alaska: A case study from Port Valdez
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Soha M Hamdy
    Biochemical studies on the effect of turmeric on breast cancer of rats
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Adel Nefzi
    “Adel Nefzi-Torrey-Pines-Institute-for-Molecular-Studies-USA-Diversity-Oriented-Synthesis-of-low-Molecular-Weight-Acyclic-and-Heterocyclic-Compounds-from-Resin-bound-Polyamides-Application-for-Drug-Discovery”
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Dalia Hussein Soliman
    “Dalia Hussein Soliman-Al-Azhar-University-Egypt-Design-synthesis-docking-and-QSAR-studies-of-novel-3-5-diaryl-pyrazole-derivatives-and-their-evaluation-as-antioxidants-and-as-Immunomodulators-inhibitors-of-TNF-α-IL-2-IL-6”
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Ewa Maj
    Antiangiogenic treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Xiaomei Lu
    Ocean subsurface studies with the CALIPSO spaceborne lidar
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Isabel Martín
    Sustainable water reuse. The case of rural areas and small settlements
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords