Author(s): Egeghy PP, HaufCabalo L, Gibson R, Rappaport SM
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Abstract AIMS: To estimate exposures to benzene and naphthalene among military personnel working with jet fuel (JP-8) and to determine whether naphthalene might serve as a surrogate for JP-8 in studies of health effects. METHODS: Benzene and naphthalene were measured in air and breath of 326 personnel in the US Air Force, who had been assigned a priori into low, moderate, and high exposure categories for JP-8. RESULTS: Median air concentrations for persons in the low, moderate, and high exposure categories were 3.1, 7.4, and 252 microg benzene/m3 air, 4.6, 9.0, and 11.4 microg benzene/m3 breath, 1.9, 10.3, and 485 microg naphthalene/m3 air, and 0.73, 0.93, and 1.83 microg naphthalene/m3 breath, respectively. In the moderate and high exposure categories, 5\% and 15\% of the benzene air concentrations, respectively, were above the 2002 threshold limit value (TLV) of 1.6 mg/m3. Multiple regression analyses of air and breath levels revealed prominent background sources of benzene exposure, including cigarette smoke. However, naphthalene exposure was not unduly influenced by sources other than JP-8. Among heavily exposed workers, dermal contact with JP-8 contributed to air and breath concentrations along with several physical and environmental factors. CONCLUSIONS: Personnel having regular contact with JP-8 are occasionally exposed to benzene at levels above the current TLV. Among heavily exposed workers, uptake of JP-8 components occurs via both inhalation and dermal contact. Naphthalene in air and breath can serve as useful measures of exposure to JP-8 and uptake of fuel components in the body.
This article was published in Occup Environ Med
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis