Author(s): Babich H, Zuckerbraun HL, Wurzburger BJ, Rubin YL, Borenfreund E,
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Abstract The human keratinocyte cell line, RHEK-1, was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of benzoyl peroxide (BZP). As determined with the neutral red (NR) cytotoxicity assay, the 24-h midpoint (NR50) toxicity values, in mM, were 0.11 for BZP and 29.5 for benzoic acid, the stable metabolite of BZP. Irreversible cytotoxicity occurred after a 1-h exposure to 0.15 mM BZP and greater. When exposed to BZP for 7 days, a lag in growth kinetics was first observed at 0.06 mM BZP. Damage to the integrity of the plasma membrane was evident, as leakage of lactic acid dehydrogenase occurred during a 4-h exposure to BZP at 0.05 mM and greater. Intracellular membranes were also affected, as extensive vacuolization, initially perinuclear but then spreading throughout the cytoplasm, was noted in BZP-stressed cells. The generation of reactive free radicals from BZP was suggested by the following: the intracellular content of glutathione was lowered in cells exposed to BZP; cells pretreated with the glutathione-depleting agent, chlorodinitrobenzene, were hypersensitive to a subsequent challenge with BZP; lipid peroxidation by BZP was inducible in the presence of Fe2+; and cells previously maintained in a medium amended with vitamin E, an antioxidant, were more resistant to BZP, showed less lipid peroxidation in the presence of BZP+Fe2+ and did not develop the extensive intracellular vacuolization as compared to non-vitamin E maintained cells.
This article was published in Toxicology
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism