alexa Beta-cell failure as a complication of diabetes.
Infectious Diseases

Infectious Diseases

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

Author(s): ChangChen KJ, Mullur R, BernalMizrachi E, ChangChen KJ, Mullur R, BernalMizrachi E

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disease characterized by beta-cell failure in the setting of insulin resistance. In early stages of the disease, pancreatic beta-cells adapt to insulin resistance by increasing mass and function. As nutrient excess persists, hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids negatively impact beta-cell function. This happens by numerous mechanisms, including the generation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in metabolic pathways, increases in intracellular calcium and the activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress. These processes adversely affect beta-cells by impairing insulin secretion, decreasing insulin gene expression and ultimately causing apoptosis. In this review, we will first discuss the regulation of beta-cell mass during normal conditions. Then, we will discuss the mechanisms of beta-cell failure, including glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Further research into mechanisms will reveal the key modulators of beta-cell failure and thus identify possible novel therapeutic targets. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease that has greatly risen in prevalence in part due to the obesity and inactivity that characterize the modern Western lifestyle. Pancreatic beta-cells possess the potential to greatly expand their function and mass in both physiologic and pathologic states of nutrient excess and increased insulin demand. beta-cell response to nutrient excess occurs by several mechanisms, including hypertrophy and proliferation of existing beta-cells, increased insulin production and secretion, and formation of new beta-cells from progenitor cells [1, 2]. Failure of pancreatic beta-cells to adequately expand in settings of increased insulin demand results in hyperglycemia and diabetes. In this review, we will first discuss the factors involved in beta-cell growth and then discuss the mechanisms by which beta-cell expansion fails and leads to beta-cell failure and diabetes (Fig. 1).
This article was published in Rev Endocr Metab Disord and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords