alexa Beyond neurons: evidence that immune and glial cells contribute to pathological pain states.
Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology

Journal of Pain & Relief

Author(s): Watkins LR, Maier SF

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Chronic pain can occur after peripheral nerve injury, infection, or inflammation. Under such neuropathic pain conditions, sensory processing in the affected body region becomes grossly abnormal. Despite decades of research, currently available drugs largely fail to control such pain. This review explores the possibility that the reason for this failure lies in the fact that such drugs were designed to target neurons rather than immune or glial cells. It describes how immune cells are a natural and inextricable part of skin, peripheral nerves, dorsal root ganglia, and spinal cord. It then examines how immune and glial activation may participate in the etiology and symptomatology of diverse pathological pain states in both humans and laboratory animals. Of the variety of substances released by activated immune and glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6) appear to be of special importance in the creation of peripheral nerve and neuronal hyperexcitability. Although this review focuses on immune modulation of pain, the implications are pervasive. Indeed, all nerves and neurons regardless of modality or function are likely affected by immune and glial activation in the ways described for pain. This article was published in Physiol Rev and referenced in Journal of Pain & Relief

Relevant Expert PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords