Author(s): Kobayashi M, Nakamura T, Tamura J, Kokubo T, Kikutani T
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Abstract Three types of bioactive bone cement (designated AWC, HAC, and TCPC), each consisting of bisphenol-alpha-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA)-based resin and a bioactive filler of apatite and wollastonite containing glass-ceramic (AW-GC), sintered hydroxyapatite (HA), or beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) powder were made in order to evaluate the influence of the bioactive filler on the mechanical and biological properties of bone cement. The proportion of filler added to the cements was 70\% w/w. The compressive, bending, and tensile strengths and the fracture toughness of AWC were higher than HAC and TCPC under wet conditions. The cements were evaluated in vivo by packing them into the intramedullary canals of rat tibiae. An affinity index that equalled the length of bone in direct apposition to the cement was calculated for each cement and expressed as a percentage of the total length of the cement surface. Histological examination of rat tibiae up to 8 weeks after implantation revealed that AWC had higher bioactivity than HAC and TCPC. New bone had formed along the AWC surface within 2 weeks, and at 4 weeks newly formed bone surrounded the cement surface almost completely. In HAC- and TCPC-implanted tibiae, immature bone had formed directly toward but not along the cement surface at 2 weeks. Observation of cement-bone interfaces showed that AWC had bonded to the bone via a so-called "Ca-P-rich layer"; the cement-bone interface remained stable, and the width of the CA-P-rich layer became thicker with time. On the other hand, in HAC- and TCPC-implanted tibiae, the cement surface fillers were surrounded by new bone and were absorbed gradually to become bone matrix. The cement-bone interfaces went inside the cement with time. Our results indicate that stronger interstitial bonding between the inorganic filler and the organic matrix resin in AWC lead to higher mechanical properties; results also indicate that the more stable cement-bone interface and higher bioactivity of AWC are due to early and uniform apatite formation on the cement surface.
This article was published in J Biomed Mater Res
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy