Author(s): Puhakka JA, Herwig RP, Koro PM, Wolfe GV, Ferguson JF
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Abstract An aerobic, continuous-flow fluidized-bed reactor was established with inoculum from activated sludge, and fed a mixture of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (TeCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) as the sole sources of carbon and energy for 2 years. Experiments with the enrichment were performed with material from the reactor. Later, degradation experiments were completed using pure cultures of bacteria that were isolated from suspended samples of the carrier biofilm. In batch-bottle bioassays, the reactor enrichment degraded PCP, TeCP and TCP both in mineral salts (MS) and tryptone-yeast extract-glucose (TGY) media. ortho-Methoxylated chlorophenols including 4,5-dichloroguaiacol (4,5-DCG), tetrachloroguaiacol (TeCG) and trichlorosyringol (TCS) resisted biodegradation by the enrichment both in MS and TGY media, whereas 5,6-dichlorovanillin (5,6-DCV) was readily transformed to an unidentified metabolite. Experiments with 14C labeled chlorophenols showed mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) and 2,3,5-TCP to 14CO2 by the enrichment. Material from the suspended biofilm after continuous chlorophenol feeding for 2 years was inoculated onto TGY-agar plates, and showed predominantly two colony types accounting for over 99\% of the total colony counts. The two colony types, were equal in abundance. Six Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, nonfermentative small rods were isolated in TGY agar media supplemented with 10 mg/l of TeCP or PCP. All isolates formed colonies in TGY plus 150 mg/l of PCP. The isolates degraded TCP and TeCP but not PCP. In mixtures of isolated bacteria the rates of chlorophenol degradation were similar to those observed with individual isolates. Three isolates were identified as Pseudomonas saccharophila and three were an unidentified species of Pseudomonas.
This article was published in Appl Microbiol Biotechnol
and referenced in Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation