Author(s): C R Kokare, S Chakraborty, A N Khopade, K R Mah adik
Biofilm is an assemblage of the microbial cells tha t is irreversibly associated with a surface and usu ally enclosed in a matrix of polysaccharide material. Biofilm is compo sed primarily of microbial cells and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Extracellular polymeric matrix plays various roles in structure and function of different biofilm comm unities. Adhesion to the surface provides considerable advan tages such as protection against antimicrobial agen ts, acquisition of new genetic traits, and the nutrient availability and m etabolic co-operability. Anthony van Leeuwenhoek, w ho discovered microbial attachment to his own tooth surface, is c redited with the discovery of biofilm. The formatio n of biofilm takes place in three steps. Biofilm is responsible for ch ronic bacterial infection, infection on medical dev ices, deterioration of water quality and the contamination of food. This a rticle provides an overview of the formation of bio film, structure, role in microbial communities and its applications.