alexa Biogeochemical cycling bacteria as indices of pond fertilization: importance of CNP ratios of input fertilizers.
Geology & Earth Science

Geology & Earth Science

Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change

Author(s): Jana BB, Chakraborty P, Biswas JK, Ganguly S

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Abstract AIMS: The influence of carbon-nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus ratios of input fertilizers, and that of pond water, on the growth of heterotrophic and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria of water and sediment, was examined in relation to fertilizer mineralization indices using different modes of fertilization through inorganic and organic sources. METHODS AND RESULTS: The first experiment used carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus ratios varying from 12 : 2 : 1 to 151 : 6 : 1, applied at the rate of 0.043 g l(-1) week(-1), whereas in the second ratios varied from 25.6 : 6.2 : 1 to 150 : 12 : 1 applied once at the rate of 3.33 g l(-1). Different fertilizers (cattle dung, poultry droppings, urea, single superphosphate and starch) were mixed in different proportions to achieve the desired carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus ratio. The heterotrophic and phosphate-solubilizing populations were more responsive to an early manuring phase than later, implying that pond fertilization was microbiologically more dynamic in the earlier phase. The carbon-nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus ratios of 11.8 (88.6 : 7.5) and 7.5 (7.5 : 1), respectively, of input fertilizers favoured growth of both heterotrophic and phosphate-solubilizing bacterial populations much better than the other ratios tested. Likewise, water carbon-nitrogen and nitrogen-phosphorus ratios of 11.9 and 3.34 induced bacterial growth. The carbon-nitrogen ratios of 12.63 (101 : 8) (input fertilizer)-4.54 (water), and nitrogen-phosphorus ratios of 8 (8 : 1) (input fertilizer)-2.93 (water), gave gross primary productivity values higher than the remaining ratios, exhibiting overall curvilinear relationships. The values of gross primary productivity were the direct function of values of fertilizer mineralization indices for carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that the mixed fertilizer (carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus-88.6 : 7.5 : 1) comprising cattle dung (95\%), poultry droppings (2.5\%), urea (2\%) and single superphosphate (0.5\%), applied at the rate of 23,000 kg ha(-1) year(-1), was a suitable cost-effective fertilization option for aquaculture practices. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: As chemical fertilizers are expensive and cause some adverse effects on the soil structure, composition, microflora and other characteristics of the pond, mixed combinations of inorganic and organics with narrow range of carbon-nitrogen-phosphorus ratio can be suitable and cost-effective fertilization tools in aquaculture practices, which is to be linked with the microbial activities of the pond.
This article was published in J Appl Microbiol and referenced in Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change

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