Author(s): Franceschi RT
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Abstract Safe, effective approaches for bone regeneration are needed to reverse bone loss caused by trauma, disease, and tumor resection. Unfortunately, the science of bone regeneration is still in its infancy, with all current or emerging therapies having serious limitations. Unlike current regenerative therapies that use single regenerative factors, the natural processes of bone formation and repair require the coordinated expression of many molecules, including growth factors, bone morphogenetic proteins, and specific transcription factors. As will be developed in this article, future advances in bone regeneration will likely incorporate therapies that mimic critical aspects of these natural biological processes, using the tools of gene therapy and tissue engineering. This review will summarize current knowledge related to normal bone development and fracture repair, and will describe how gene therapy, in combination with tissue engineering, may mimic critical aspects of these natural processes. Current gene therapy approaches for bone regeneration will then be summarized, including recent work where combinatorial gene therapy was used to express groups of molecules that synergistically interacted to stimulate bone regeneration. Last, proposed future directions for this field will be discussed, where regulated gene expression systems will be combined with cells seeded in precise three-dimensional configurations on synthetic scaffolds to control both temporal and spatial distribution of regenerative factors. It is the premise of this article that such approaches will eventually allow us to achieve the ultimate goal of bone tissue engineering: to reconstruct entire bones with associated joints, ligaments, or sutures. Abbreviations used: BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; AER, apical ectodermal ridge; ZPA, zone of polarizing activity; PZ, progress zone; SHH, sonic hedgehog; OSX, osterix transcription factor; FGFR, fibroblast growth factor receptor; PMN, polymorphonuclear neutrophil; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; TGF-beta, tumor-derived growth factor beta; CAR, coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor; MLV, murine leukemia virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; AAV, adeno-associated virus; CAT, computer-aided tomography; CMV, cytomegalovirus; GAM, gene-activated matrix; MSC, marrow stromal cell; MDSC, muscle-derived stem cell; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.
This article was published in J Dent Res
and referenced in Dentistry