Author(s): Karlovsky P
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Abstract Enzymatic inactivation of fungal toxins is an attractive strategy for the decontamination of agricultural commodities and for the protection of crops from phytotoxic effects of fungal metabolites. This review summarizes research on the biological detoxification of fungal toxins by microorganisms and plants and its practical applications. Some mycotoxins are detoxified during ensiling and other fermentation processes (aflatoxins, alternariol, mycophenolic acid, patulin, PR toxin) while others are transformed into toxic products or survive fermentation unchanged. Plants can detoxify fomannoxin, fusaric acid, HC-toxin, ochratoxin A and oxalate but the degradation of deoxynivalenol has yet to be proven. Microflora of the digestive tract of vertebrates and invertebrates exhibit detoxification activities towards aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, oxalate and trichothecenes. Some toxin-producing fungi are able to degrade or transform their own products under suitable conditions. Pure cultures of bacteria and fungi which detoxify mycotoxins have been isolated from complex microbial populations by screening and enrichment culture techniques. Genes responsible for some of the detoxification activities have been cloned and expressed in heterologous hosts. The detoxification of aflatoxins, cercosporin, fumonisins, fusaric acid, ochratoxin A, oxalic acid, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone by pure cultures is reviewed. Finally, current application of these results in food and feed production and plant breeding is summarized and expected future developments are outlined. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
This article was published in Nat Toxins
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology