Author(s): Swain P, Nayak SK, Nanda PK, Dash S
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also termed endotoxins, considered to be a major virulence factor, are responsible for the lethal effects and clinical manifestations of diseases in humans and animals. Higher animals are extremely sensitive to endotoxin even at low doses but lower vertebrates like fish are often resistant to endotoxic shock. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 is mainly involved in the activation of the immune system by LPS through the specific recognition of its endotoxin (Lipid A) moiety. Although several Toll-like receptors are present in fish, those molecules specifically involved in TLR-4 mediated endotoxin recognition have not been fully established in different fish species. Despite this, LPS has the potency to express cytokines, acute-phase proteins and also exerts immunological, pathological, physiological, immuno-endocrinological and neuro-immunological effects in several fish species. The immunostimulating effects of endotoxin by triggering various immune parameters such as T and B lymphocytes, macrophages, and complement systems have been established in teleosts. This article reviews the multiple biological effects of endotoxin which will further strengthen the knowledge among researchers on various aspects of endotoxin in lower vertebrates, particularly in the piscine system.
This article was published in Fish Shellfish Immunol
and referenced in Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal