Author(s): Hiroshi Motoh
The giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon , the largest and most commercially important species among penaeids reaching 270 mm in body length or 260 g in weight, is suitable for culture in ponds and offers high market prices. This species occurs mainly in Southeast Asian waters, though it is quite widely distributed from 30°E to 155°E longitude and 35°N to 35°S latitude. Mating and spawning generally take place at night. The maximum number of eggs spawned at a time is more than 800,000. The life history is classified into six phases: embryo, larva, juvenile, adolescent, Subadult, and adult. The biological minimum size is 37 mm carapace length for male s and 47 mm CL for females. The food consists mainly of small crustacea, mollusks and annelids. The adult is a predator of slow-moving benthic macroinvertebrates, or opportunistic in feeding behavior. This prawn is r elatively eurythermal and euryhaline, growing rapidly to a large size. The life span may be one and a half to two years, and the female may live for a longer period than the male. In general, the female is larger than the male.