Author(s): Trof RJ, Di Maggio F, Leemreis J, Groeneveld AB
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Abstract Acute renal failure (ARF) is a frequent problem in the intensive care unit and is associated with a high mortality. Early recognition could help clinical management, but current indices lack sufficient predictive value for ARF. Therefore, there might be a need for biomarkers in detecting renal tubular injury and/or dysfunction at an early stage before a decline in glomerular filtration rate is noted by an increased serum creatinine. A MEDLINE/PubMed search was performed, including all articles about biomarkers for ARF. All publication types, human and animal studies, or subsets were searched in English language. An extraction of relevant articles was made for the purpose of this narrative review. These biomarkers include tubular enzymes (alpha- and pi-glutathione S-transferase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Ala-(Leu-Gly)-aminopeptidase, and fructose-1,6-biphosphatase), low-molecular weight urinary proteins (alpha1- and beta2-microglobulin, retinol-binding protein, adenosine deaminase-binding protein, and cystatin C), Na+/H+ exchanger, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cysteine-rich protein 61, kidney injury molecule 1, urinary interleukins/adhesion molecules, and markers of glomerular filtration such as proatrial natriuretic peptide (1-98) and cystatin C. These biomarkers, detected in urine or serum shortly after tubular injury, have been suggested to contribute to prediction of ARF and need for renal replacement therapy. However, excretion of these biomarkers may also increase after reversible and mild dysfunction and may not necessarily be associated with persistent or irreversible damage. Large prospective studies in human are needed to demonstrate an improved outcome of biomarker-driven management of the patient at risk for ARF.
This article was published in Shock
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research