Author(s): Eaton RW, Nitterauer JD
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Abstract Isopropylbenzene-degrading bacteria, including Pseudomonas putida RE204, transform benzothiophene to a mixture of compounds. Induced strain RE204 and a number of its Tn5 mutant derivatives were used to accumulate these compounds and their precursors from benzothiophene. These metabolites were subsequently identified by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When strain RE204 was incubated with benzothiophene, it produced a bright yellow compound, identified as trans-4-[3-hydroxy-2-thienyl]-2-oxobut-3-enoate, formed by the rearrangement of cis-4-(3-keto-2,3-dihydrothienyl)-2-hydroxybuta-2,4-dieno ate, the product of 3-isopropylcatechol-2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed ring cleavage of 4,5-dihydroxybenzothiophene, as well as 2-mercaptophenylglyoxalate and 2'-mercaptomandelaldehyde. A dihydrodiol dehydrogenase-deficient mutant, strain RE213, converted benzothiophene to cis-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzothiophene and 2'-mercaptomandelaldehyde; neither trans-4-[3-hydroxy-2-thienyl]-2-oxobut-3-enoate nor 2-mercaptophenylglyoxalate was detected. Cell extracts of strain RE204 catalyzed the conversion of cis-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzothiophene to trans-4-[3-hydroxy-2-thienyl]-2-oxobut-3-enoate in the presence of NAD+. Under the same conditions, extracts of the 3-isopropylcatechol-2,3-dioxygenase-deficient mutant RE215 acted on cis-4,5-dihydroxy-4,5-dihydrobenzothiophene, forming 4,5-dihydroxybenzothiophene. These data indicate that oxidation of benzothiophene by strain RE204 is initiated at either ring. Transformation initiated at the 4,5 position on the benzene ring proceeds by three enzyme-catalyzed reactions through ring cleavage. The sequence of events that occurs following attack at the 2,3 position of the thiophene ring is less clear, but it is proposed that 2,3 dioxygenation yields a product that is both a cis-dihydrodiol and a thiohemiacetal, which as a result of this structure undergoes two competing reactions: either spontaneous opening of the ring, yielding 2'-mercaptomandelaldehyde, or oxidation by the dihydrodiol dehydrogenase to another thiohemiacetal, 2-hydroxy-3-oxo-2,3-dihydrobenzothiophene, which is not a substrate for the ring cleavage dioxygenase but which spontaneously opens to form 2-mercaptophenylglyoxaldehyde and subsequently 2-mercaptophenylglyoxalate. The yellow product, trans-4-[3-hydroxy-2-thienyl]-2-oxobut-3-enoate, is a structural analog of trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate, an intermediate of the naphthalene catabolic pathway; extracts of recombinant bacteria containing trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase catalyzed the conversion of trans-4-[3-hydroxy-2-thienyl]-2-oxobut-3-enoate to 3-hydroxythiophene-2-carboxaldehyde, which could then be further acted on, in the presence of NAD+, by extracts of recombinant bacteria containing the subsequent enzyme of the naphthalene pathway, salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase.
This article was published in J Bacteriol
and referenced in Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics