Author(s): Huang HM, Ou HC, Hsieh SJ, Chiang LY
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Abstract Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) alters signal transduction systems, including increases in the cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i) response which have pathophysiological significance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purposes of this study were to elucidate the mechanism involved in Abeta's effect on the Ca2+ signal and to evaluate the effect of fullerenol-1, a water-soluble hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger, on the Abeta-induced Ca2+ response. Both Abeta and bradykinin (BK) dose-dependently elevated [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells. Fullerenol-1, at a concentration range between 100 nM and 1 microM, dose-dependently reduced the Abeta-induced [Ca2+]i response, but did not alter the subsequent BK-mediated process. Thapsigargin, an inhibitor of Ca2+-ATPase, released Ca2+ from the internal store and diminished the BK-mediated calcium spike but did not affect the Abeta-induced Ca2+ response. In the absence of extracellular calcium, the Abeta-induced, but not BK-induced, calcium spike was completely abolished. The Ca induced by Abeta did not enter through the voltage-dependent calcium channels or ligand gated calcium channels, because the peak of Abeta-evoked Ca2+ was not significantly altered by various Ca2+ channel blockers or a NMDA receptor antagonist MK801. In addition, neither cholera toxin nor pertussis toxin altered the Abeta-induced Ca response. The results demonstrated that Abeta-stimulated [Ca2+]i increase is due to Ca influx from an extracellular source rather than from the intracellular store. Alteration of the membrane lipid structure and permeability by free radicals generated by Abeta may be a major cause of Ca -influx. Furthermore, fullerenol-1, a novel antioxidant, may provide therapeutic benefits in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.
This article was published in Life Sci
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism