Author(s): Plouin PF, Chatellier G, Darn B, Raynaud A
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Abstract Data for the effects on blood pressure of renal artery balloon angioplasty are mostly from uncontrolled studies. The aim of this study was to document the efficacy and safety of angioplasty for lowering blood pressure in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. Patients were randomly assigned antihypertensive drug treatment (control group, n = 26) or angioplasty (n = 23). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure, the primary end point, was measured at baseline and at termination. Termination took place 6 months after randomization or earlier in patients who developed refractory hypertension. In those allocated angioplasty, antihypertensive treatment was discontinued after the procedure but was subsequently resumed if hypertension persisted. Secondary end points were the treatment score and the incidence of complications. Two patients in the control group and 6 in the angioplasty group suffered procedural complications (relative risk, 3.4; 95\% confidence interval, 0.8 to 15.1). Early termination was required for refractory hypertension in 7 patients in the control group. Antihypertensive treatment was resumed in 17 patients in the angioplasty group. Mean ambulatory blood pressure at termination did not differ between control (141+/-15/84+/-11 mm Hg) and angioplasty (140+/-15/81+/-9 mm Hg) groups. Angioplasty reduced by 60\% the probability of having a treatment score of 2 or more at termination (relative risk, 0.4; 95\% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7). There was 1 case of dissection with segmental renal infarction and 3 of restenosis in the angioplasty group. No patient suffered renal artery thrombosis. In unilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, angioplasty is a drug-sparing procedure that involves some morbidity. Previous uncontrolled and unblinded assessments of angioplasty overestimated its potential for lowering blood pressure.
This article was published in Hypertension
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology