Author(s): Dirks J, Jrgensen H, Jensen CH, Ostrowski SR, Johansson PI
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of loss of life expectancy worldwide. In the most seriously injured patients, coagulopathy is often present on admission. Therefore, transfusion strategies to increase the ratio of plasma (FFP) and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBC), simulating whole blood, have been introduced. Several studies report that higher ratios improve survival in massively bleeding patients. Here, the aim was to investigate the potential effect of increased FFP and PLT to RBC on mortality in trauma patients. METHODS: In a retrospective before and after study, all trauma patients primarily admitted to a level-one Trauma Centre, receiving blood transfusion, in 2001-3 (n = 97) and 2005-7 (n = 156), were included. In 2001-3, FFP and PLT were administered in accordance with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) guidelines whereas in 2005-7, Hemostatic Control Resuscitation (HCR) entailing pre-emptive use of FFP and PLT in transfusion packages during uncontrolled haemorrhage and thereafter guided by thrombelastograph (TEG) analysis was employed. The effect of transfusion therapy and coagulopathy on mortality was investigated. RESULTS: Patients included in the early and late period had comparable demography, injury severity score (ISS), admission hematology and coagulopathy (27\% vs. 34\% had APTT above normal). There was a significant change in blood transfusion practice with shorter time interval from admission to first transfusion (median time 3 min vs.28 min in massive bleeders, p < 0.001), transfusion of higher ratios of FFP:RBC, PLT:RBC and PLT:FFP in the HCR group but 30-day mortality remained comparable in the two periods. In the 2005-7 period, higher age, ISS and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) above normal were independent predictors of mortality whereas no association was fund between blood product ratios and mortality. CONCLUSION: Aggressive administration of FFP and PLT did not influence mortality in the present trauma population.
This article was published in Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
and referenced in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion