Author(s): McDannold N, Zhang Y, Vykhodtseva N
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Abstract Numerous animal studies have demonstrated that ultrasound bursts combined with a microbubble-based ultrasound contrast agent can temporarily disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with little or no other apparent effects to the brain. As the BBB is a primary limitation to the use of most drugs in the brain, this method could enable a noninvasive means for targeted drug delivery in the brain. This work investigated whether BBB disruption and vessel damage when overexposure occurs can be influenced by choice of anesthesia protocol, which have different vasoactive effects. Four locations were sonicated transcranially in each brain of 16 rats using an unfocused 532 kHz piston transducer. Burst sonications (10 ms bursts applied at 1 Hz for 60 s) were combined with intravenous Definity (10 μl/kg) injections. BBB disruption was evaluated using contrast-enhanced MRI. Half of the animals were anesthetized with i.p. ketamine and xylazine, and the other half with inhaled isoflurane and oxygen. Over the range of exposure levels tested, MRI contrast enhancement was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for animals anesthetized with ketamine/xylazine. Furthermore, the threshold for extensive erythrocyte extravasation was lower with ketamine/xylazine. These results suggest that BBB disruption and/or vascular damage can be affected by vascular or other factors that are influenced by different anesthesia protocol. These experiments may also have been influenced by the recently reported findings that the circulation time for perfluorocarbon microbubbles is substantially reduced when oxygen is used as the carrier gas. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Ultrasound Med Biol
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology