Author(s): Schilephake H
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Abstract A literature review was performed to survey the available information on the potential of bone growth factors in skeletal reconstruction in the maxillofacial area. The aim of this review was to characterize the biological and developmental nature of the growth factors considered, their molecular level of activity and their osteogenic potential in craniofacial bone repair and reconstruction. A total of 231 references were selected for evaluation by the content of the abstracts. All growth factors considered have a fundamental role in growth and development. In postnatal skeletal regeneration, PDGF plays an important role in inducing proliferation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells. It is an important mediator for bone healing and remodelling during trauma and infection. It can enhance bone regeneration in conjunction with other growth factors but is unlikely to provide entirely osteogenic properties itself. IGFs have an important role in general growth and maintenance of the body skeleton. The effect of local application of IGFs alone in craniofacial skeletal defects has not yet shown a clear potential for enhancement of bone regeneration in the reported dosages. The combination of IGF-I with PDGF has been effective in promoting bone regeneration in dentoalveolar defects around implants or after periodontal bone loss. TGFbeta alone in skeletal reconstruction appears to be associated with uncertain results. The presence of committed cells is required for enhancement of bone formation by TGFbeta. It has a biphasic effect, which suppresses proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation at high concentrations. BMPs, BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7 in particular, appear to be the most effective growth factors in terms of osteogenesis and osseous defect repair. Efficacy of BMPs for defect repair is strongly dependent on the type of carrier and has been subject to unknown factors in clinical feasibility trials resulting in ambiguous results. The current lack of clinical data may prolong the period until this factor is introduced into routine clinical application. PRP is supposed to increase proliferation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells and to enhance angiogenesis. There is little scientific evidence about the benefit of PRP in skeletal reconstructive and preprosthetic surgery yet and it is unlikely that peri-implant bone healing or regeneration of local bone into alloplastic material by the application of PRP alone will be significantly enhanced.
This article was published in Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology