Author(s): MahauadFernandez WD, , DeMali KA, , Olivier AK,
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Several innate immunity genes are overexpressed in human cancers and their roles remain controversial. Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) is one such gene whose role in cancer is not clear. BST-2 is a unique innate immunity gene with both antiviral and pro-tumor functions and therefore can serve as a paradigm for understanding the roles of other innate immunity genes in cancers. METHODS: Meta-analysis of tumors from breast cancer patients obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets were evaluated for levels of BST-2 expression and for tumor aggressiveness. In vivo, we examined the effect of knockdown of BST-2 in two different murine carcinoma cells on tumor growth, metastasis, and survival. In vitro, we assessed the effect of carcinoma cell BST-2 knockdown and/or overexpression on adhesion, anchorage-independent growth, migration, and invasion. RESULTS: BST-2 in breast tumors and mammary cancer cells is a strong predictor of tumor size, tumor aggressiveness, and host survival. In humans, BST-2 mRNA is elevated in metastatic and invasive breast tumors. In mice, orthotopic implantation of mammary tumor cells lacking BST-2 increased tumor latency, decreased primary tumor growth, reduced metastases to distal organs, and prolonged host survival. Furthermore, we found that the cellular basis for the role of BST-2 in promoting tumorigenesis include BST-2-directed enhancement in cancer cell adhesion, anchorage-independency, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS: BST-2 contributes to the emergence of neoplasia and malignant progression of breast cancer. Thus, BST-2 may (1) serve as a biomarker for aggressive breast cancers, and (2) be a novel target for breast cancer therapeutics.
This article was published in Breast Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy