Author(s): Lee KH, Lee JH, Choi SJ, Lee JH, Kim S,
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Abstract A total of 118 consecutive adult patients with acute leukemia (78 AML, 36 ALL, and four acute mixed lineage leukemia) underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after conditioning with BuCy (n=113) or a nonmyeloablative regimen of busulfan-fludarabine (n=5). After a median follow-up of 35.8 months (range, 6.4-91.0), 34 patients experienced at least one episode of leukemia relapse. Of 34 initial episodes, 14 (41\%) occurred in extramedullary sites, with (n=8) or without (n=6) concomitant bone marrow involvement. The median time to relapse in the extramedullary sites was longer than that of relapse in bone marrow only (13.5 vs 6.1 months, P=0.046). Acute leukemia subtype and disease status at HCT showed an independent predictive value for overall relapse, as well as for extramedullary relapse with or without bone marrow involvement (Philadelphia chromosome positive acute leukemia vs low-risk AML, relative risk 22.68 (95\% CI, 2.18-235.64); other than first CR vs first CR, relative risk 5.61 (95\% CI, 1.80-17.51)), but not for bone marrow relapse. Our study suggests that there may be different pathogenetic mechanisms for bone marrow vs extramedullary relapse of acute leukemia after allogeneic HCT. The mode of relapse needs to be investigated in future reports of acute leukemia treated with allogeneic HCT.
This article was published in Bone Marrow Transplant
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals