alexa Brain angiotensin receptor subtypes in the control of physiological and behavioral responses.
Cardiology

Cardiology

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology

Author(s): Wright JW, Harding JW

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Abstract This review summarizes emerging evidence that supports the notion of a separate brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) complete with the necessary precursors and enzymes for the formation and degradation of biologically active forms of angiotensins, and several binding subtypes that may mediate their diverse functions. Of these subtypes the most is known about the AT1 site which preferentially binds angiotensin II (AII) and angiotensin III (AIII). The AT1 site appears to mediate the classic angiotensin responses concerned with body water balance and the maintenance of blood pressure. Less is known about the AT2 site which also binds AII and AIII and may play a role in vascular growth. Recently, an AT3 site was discovered in cultured neoblastoma cells, and an AT4 site which preferentially binds AII(3-8), a fragment of AII now referred to as angiotensin IV (AIV). The AT4 site has been implicated in memory acquisition and retrieval, and the regulation of blood flow. In addition to the more well-studied functions of the brain RAS, we review additional less well investigated responses including regulation of cellular function, the modulation of sensory and motor systems, long term potentiation, and stress related mechanisms. Although the receptor subtypes responsible for mediating these physiologies and behaviors have not been definitively identified research efforts are ongoing. We also suggest potential contributions by the RAS to clinically relevant syndromes such as dysfunctions in the regulation of blood flow and ischemia, changes in cognitive affect and memory in clinical depressed and Alzheimer's patients, and angiotensin's contribution to alcohol consumption.
This article was published in Neurosci Biobehav Rev and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology

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