Author(s): Khatua S, Sadighi ZS, Pearlman ML, Bochare S, Vats TS
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Abstract Brain tumors are the second most common malignancy and the major cause of cancer related mortality in children. Though significant advances in neuroimaging, neurosurgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy have evolved over the years, overall survival rate remains less than 75\%. Malignant gliomas, high risk medulloblastoma with recurrence and infant brain tumors continue to be a major cause of therapeutic frustration. Even today diffuse pontine gliomas are universally fatal. Though tumors like low grade glioma have an overall excellent survival, recurrences and progression in eloquent areas pose therapeutic challenges. As research continues to unravel the biology including key molecules and signaling pathways responsible for the oncogenesis of different childhood brain tumors, novel targeted therapies are profiled. Identification of major targets like the Epidermal Growth factor Receptor (EGFR), Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR), Vascular Endothelial Growth factor (VEGF) and key signaling pathways like the MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR has enabled us over the recent years to better understand tumor behavior and design tailored therapy. These efforts have improved overall survival of children with brain tumors. This review article discusses the current status of common brain tumors in children and the newer therapeutic approaches.
This article was published in Indian J Pediatr
and referenced in Pediatric Dental Care