alexa BTNL2, a butyrophilin B7-like molecule, is a negative costimulatory molecule modulated in intestinal inflammation.


Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine

Author(s): Arnett HA, Escobar SS, GonzalezSuarez E, Budelsky AL, Steffen LA,

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Abstract Butyrophilin-like 2 (BTNL2) is a butyrophilin family member with homology to the B7 costimulatory molecules, polymorphisms of which have been recently associated through genetic analyses to sporadic inclusion body myositis and sarcoidosis. We have characterized the full structure, expression, and function of BTNL2. Structural analysis of BTNL2 shows a molecule with an extracellular region containing two sets of two Ig domains, a transmembrane region, and a previously unreported cytoplasmic tail. Unlike most other butyrophilin members, BTNL2 lacks the prototypical B30.2 ring domain. TaqMan and Northern blot analysis indicate BTNL2 is predominantly expressed in digestive tract tissues, in particular small intestine and Peyer's patches. Immunohistochemistry with BTNL2-specific Abs further localizes BTNL2 to epithelial and dendritic cells within these tissues. Despite its homology to the B7 family, BTNL2 does not bind any of the known B7 family receptors such as CD28, CTLA-4, PD-1, ICOS, or B and T lymphocyte attenuator. Because of its localization in the gut and potential role in the immune system, BTNL2 expression was analyzed in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease. BTNL2 is overexpressed during both the asymptomatic and symptomatic phase of the Mdr1a knockout model of spontaneous colitis. In functional assays, soluble BTNL2-Fc protein inhibits the proliferation of murine CD4(+) T cells from the spleen, mesenteric lymph node, and Peyer's patch. In addition, BTNL2-Fc reduces proliferation and cytokine production from T cells activated by anti-CD3 and B7-related protein 1. These data suggest a role for BTNL2 as a negative costimulatory molecule with implications for inflammatory disease.
This article was published in J Immunol and referenced in Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine

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