alexa C1027 chromophore, a potent new enediyne antitumor antibiotic, induces sequence-specific double-strand DNA cleavage.
Oncology

Oncology

Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy

Author(s): Xu YJ, Zhen YS, Goldberg IH

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Abstract C1027, a new macromolecular antitumor antibiotic produced by a Streptomyces strain, shows highly potent cytotoxicity to cultured cancer cells and marked DNA cleaving ability. The structure of its chromophore, responsible for most of the biological activities of the antibiotic, was recently determined and found to contain a nine-membered enediyne. In contrast to other enediyne antibiotics, such as neocarzinostatin, calicheamicin, esperamicin, and recently found kedarcidin, C1027 damages duplex DNA even in the absence of thiols. The DNA damage caused by C1027 includes double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, and abasic sites. Experiments with plasmid DNA and 32P-end-labeled restriction fragments demonstrated that the chromophore, extracted from the protein-containing holoantibiotic, interacts in the DNA minor groove and cleaves double-helical DNA with a remarkable sequence-selectivity causing direct double-strand breaks. The double-strand cleavage sites, occurring predominantly at CTTTT/AAAAG, ATAAT/ATTAT, CTTTA/TAAAG, CTCTT/AAGAG, and especially GTTAT/ATAAC, consist of five nucleotide sequences with a two-nucleotide 3'-stagger of the cleaved residues (cutting sites are underlined). The chemical structures of the damaged residues at the GTTAT/ATAAC cleavage site suggest a model in which a C1027-induced double-strand break results from abstraction, by a single molecule of the diradical form of the chromophore, of a C4' hydrogen atom from the A residue of GTTAT and a C5' hydrogen atom from the A of ATAAC on the opposite strand. Single-strand breaks, which are mainly produced at adenylate and thymidylate residues, appear to be separate events presumably resulting from different binding modes of the drug to DNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This article was published in Biochemistry and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy

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