Author(s): Tateno H, Krapf D, Hino T, SnchezCrdenas C, Darszon A,
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Abstract Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 is known to induce the acrosome reaction of mammalian spermatozoa, but it also quickly immobilizes them. Although mouse spermatozoa were immobilized by this ionophore, they initiated vigorous motility (hyperactivation) soon after this reagent was washed away by centrifugation. About half of live spermatozoa were acrosome-reacted at the end of 10 min of ionophore treatment; fertilization of cumulus-intact oocytes began as soon as spermatozoa recovered their motility and before the increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which started 30-45 min after washing out the ionophore. When spermatozoa were treated with A23187, more than 95\% of oocytes were fertilized in the constant presence of the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89. Ionophore-treated spermatozoa also fertilized 80\% of oocytes, even in the absence of HCO3(-), a component essential for cAMP synthesis under normal in vitro conditions. Under these conditions, fertilized oocytes developed into normal offspring. These data indicate that mouse spermatozoa treated with ionophore are able to fertilize without activation of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Furthermore, they suggest that the cAMP/PKA pathway is upstream of an intracellular Ca(2+) increase required for the acrosome reaction and hyperactivation of spermatozoa under normal in vitro conditions.
This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
and referenced in Andrology-Open Access