Author(s): GhoshChoudhury N, Mandal CC, Das F, Ganapathy S, Ahuja S,
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Abstract Skeletal remodeling consists of timely formation and resorption of bone by osteoblasts and osteoclasts in a quantitative manner. Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia receiving inhibitors of c-Abl tyrosine kinase often show reduced bone remodeling due to impaired osteoblast and osteoclast function. BMP-2 plays a significant role in bone generation and resorption by contributing to the formation of mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effects of c-Abl on BMP-2-induced bone remodeling and the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Using a pharmacological inhibitor and expression of a dominant negative mutant of c-Abl, we show an essential role of this tyrosine kinase in the development of bone nodules containing mature osteoblasts and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in response to BMP-2. Calvarial osteoblasts prepared from c-Abl null mice showed the absolute requirement of this tyrosine kinase in maturation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/Akt signaling by BMP-2 leads to osteoblast differentiation. Remarkably, inhibition of c-Abl significantly suppressed BMP-2-stimulated PI 3-kinase activity and its downstream Akt phosphorylation. Interestingly, c-Abl regulated BMP-2-induced osteoclastogenic CSF-1 expression. More importantly, we identified the requirements of c-Abl in BMP-2 autoregulation and the expressions of alkaline phosphatase and osterix that are necessary for osteoblast differentiation. c-Abl contributed to BMP receptor-specific Smad-dependent transcription of CSF-1, osterix, and BMP-2. Finally, c-Abl associates with BMP receptor IA and regulates phosphorylation of Smad in response to BMP-2. We propose that activation of c-Abl is an important step, which induces into two signaling pathways involving noncanonical PI 3-kinase and canonical Smads to integrate BMP-2-induced osteogenesis.
This article was published in J Biol Chem
and referenced in Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis