Author(s): Yamaguchi T, Hempson SJ, Reif GA, Hedge AM, Wallace DP
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Abstract Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a lethal disorder characterized by progressive expansion of renal cysts. Genetic mutations associated with PKD are thought to disrupt intracellular Ca2+ regulation, leading to abnormal proliferation of tubule epithelial cells. cAMP stimulates the B-Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (B-Raf/MEK/ERK) pathway and accelerates the proliferation of cells that are cultured from PKD cysts. By contrast, cAMP inhibits the proliferation of cells from normal human kidneys (NHK) and M-1 mouse collecting duct cells. Previously, it was found that a sustained reduction of intracellular Ca2+ levels in NHK and M-1 cells that were treated with Ca2+ entry blockers allowed cAMP activation of the B-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway, switching the cells to a cAMP-growth stimulated phenotype. In this study, primary cultures of cyst epithelial cells from autosomal dominant (ADPKD) and recessive (ARPKD) PKD kidneys were used to determine whether controlled addition of Ca2+ could reverse the aberrant mitogenic response to cAMP. Steady-state intracellular Ca2+ levels were found to be 20 nM lower in cyst-derived ADPKD cells (57 +/- 2 nM) compared with NHK cells (77 +/- 2 nM). Treatment of ADPKD cells or ARPKD cells with either Bay K8644, a Ca2+ channel activator, or A23187, a Ca2+ ionophore, caused sustained increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels and completely reversed the mitogenic response to cAMP. Elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels in ADPKD cells increased Akt activity and blocked cAMP-dependent B-Raf and ERK activation. Thus, increases in [Ca2+]i are able to restore the normal anti-mitogenic response to cAMP in cells that are derived from two genetically distinct forms of PKD.
This article was published in J Am Soc Nephrol
and referenced in Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access