Author(s): Easthope SE, Jarvis B
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Abstract Candesartan cilexetil is converted to the angiotensin II receptor antagonist candesartan during absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. The selective and competitive binding of candesartan to the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor prevents binding of angiotensin II, a key mediator in the renin-angiotensin system. Significant reductions in systolic BP and diastolic BP are achieved with a once-daily dosage of candesartan cilexetil 2 to 32 mg/day in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. In randomised studies, candesartan cilexetil 8 to 16 mg/day was at least as effective as therapeutic dosages of losartan or other angiotensin II receptor antagonists. At a dosage of up to 32 mg/day candesartan cilexetil demonstrated greater antihypertensive efficacy than losartan 50 or 100 mg/day. In comparative trials, candesartan cilexetil demonstrated similar or greater antihypertensive efficacy compared with enalapril or hydrochlorothiazide and equivalent efficacy compared with amlodipine. The efficacy of candesartan cilexetil is not affected by age, and the drug provided significant BP reductions in Black patients and in those with severe hypertension. Long-term clinical studies to assess the effects of treatment with candesartan cilexetil on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are ongoing. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy has been seen with candesartan cilexetil treatment in patients with hypertension. Furthermore, the drug has favourable effects on renal function in patients with hypertension with or without coexisting diabetes mellitus. Renal vascular resistance and albumin excretion were reduced following treatment with candesartan cilexetil. Glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism were not affected by treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Candesartan cilexetil is well tolerated and is not associated with cough, a common adverse effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor treatment. A pooled analysis of clinical trials found that the tolerability profile of candesartan cilexetil is not significantly different from that of placebo. Adverse events are not dose-related and are generally of mild to moderate severity. CONCLUSIONS: Candesartan cilexetil is an effective antihypertensive agent with a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo. Comparative data indicate that candesartan cilexetil has antihypertensive efficacy equivalent to that of other major classes of antihypertensive agents and has a long duration of action. Therefore, candesartan cilexetil is a useful therapeutic option in the management of patients with hypertension.
This article was published in Drugs
and referenced in Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics