Author(s): Nuanualsuwan S, Cliver DO
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Abstract The exceptional stability of enteric viruses probably resides in their capsids. The capsid functions of inactivated human picornaviruses and feline calicivirus (FCV) were determined. Viruses were inactivated by UV, hypochlorite, high temperature (72 degrees C), and physiological temperature (37 degrees C), all of which are pertinent to transmission via food and water. Poliovirus (PV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are transmissible via water and food, and FCV is the best available surrogate for the Norwalk-like viruses, which are leading causes of food-borne and waterborne disease in the United States. The capsids of all 37 degrees C-inactivated viruses still protected the viral RNA against RNase, even in the presence of proteinase K, which contrasted with findings with viruses inactivated at 72 degrees C. The loss of ability of the virus to attach to homologous cell receptors was universal, regardless of virus type and inactivation method, except for UV-inactivated HAV, and so virus inactivation was almost always accompanied by the loss of virus attachment. Inactivated HAV and FCV were captured by homologous antibodies. However, inactivated PV type 1 (PV-1) was not captured by homologous antibody and 37 degrees C-inactivated PV-1 was only partially captured. The epitopes on the capsids of HAV and FCV are evidently discrete from the receptor attachment sites, unlike those of PV-1. These findings indicate that the primary target of UV, hypochlorite, and 72 degrees C inactivation is the capsid and that the target of thermal inactivation (37 degrees C versus 72 degrees C) is temperature dependent.
This article was published in Appl Environ Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Bioengineering & Biomedical Science