Author(s): Poirel L, Pitout JD, Nordmann P
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Abstract Carbapenemases are beta-lactamases that hydrolyze most beta-lactams including carbapenems. Carbapenemases are classified in four molecular classes; those belonging to class A are the chromosomally-encoded and clavulanic acid-inhibited IMI, NMC-A and SME, identified in Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens; the plasmid-encoded KPC enzymes identified in Enterobacteriaceae (and rarely in Pseudomonas aeruginosa); and the GES-type enzymes identified in Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa. The class B enzymes are the most clinically-significant carbapenemases; they are metallo-beta-lactamases, mostly of the IMP and the VIM series. They have been reported worldwide and their genes are plasmid- and integron-located, hydrolyzing all beta-lactams with the exception of aztreonam. One single plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase, CMY-10, identified in an Enterobacter aerogenes isolate, has been shown to be a cephaslosporinase with some carbapenemase properties. Finally, the class D carbapenemases are being increasingly reported, mostly in Acinetobacter baumannii, and they compromise the efficacy of imipenem and meropenem significantly.
This article was published in Future Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics