Author(s): Modlin IM, Lye KD, Kidd M
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Abstract Interest in gastric carcinoid tumors has in recent time amplified considerably as the understanding of both their biological background and clinical significance has developed. The increase in identification associated with the widespread availability of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has facilitated diagnosis. In addition concern related to the consequences of long-standing hypergastrinemia generated by the use of potent acid-suppressive medications has augmented both clinical and scientific focus on gastric neuro endocrine issues. The elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms of the progenitor cell (ECL cell) of the gastric carcinoid tumor, the refinement of a pathological grading system for ECL cell proliferation, and the availability of specific immunohistologic identification techniques have further amplified the characterization of this lesion. Although the putative malignant potential of gastric carcinoids may ultimately be of only modest concern in a background of hypergastrinemia its relationship to gastric adenocarcinoma is still enigmatic and worthy of further consideration. This review will describe the molecular interrelationship between low-acid states, gastrin, and ECL cell proliferation and will discuss the pathological classification of the distinct types of gastric carcinoid tumors. In addition, the clinical rationale of current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies will be examined, providing a logical basis for the formulation of appropriate management strategies for patient care.
This article was published in Surg Oncol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System