Author(s): Zhang ZH, Wei SG, Francis J, Felder RB
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Abstract In pathophysiological conditions, increased blood-borne TNF-alpha induces a broad range of biological effects, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic drive. In urethane-anesthetized adult Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined the mechanisms by which blood-borne TNF-alpha activates neurons in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), two critical brain regions regulating sympathetic drive in normal and pathophysiological conditions. TNF-alpha (0.5 microg/kg), administered intravenously or into ipsilateral carotid artery (ICA), activated PVN and RLVM neurons and increased sympathetic nerve activity, arterial pressure, and heart rate. Responses to intravenous TNF-alpha were not affected by vagotomy but were reduced by mid-collicular decerebration. Responses to ICA TNF-alpha were substantially reduced by injection of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor ketorolac (150 microg) into lateral ventricle. Injection of PGE(2) (50 ng) into lateral ventricle or directly into PVN increased PVN or RVLM activity, respectively, and sympathetic drive, with shorter onset latency than blood-borne TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that blood-borne cytokines stimulate cardiovascular and renal sympathetic responses via a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism operating at the hypothalamic level.
This article was published in Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Hypertension: Open Access