Author(s): Levin A, Stevens L, McCullough PA
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Abstract The interlinking of CVD with CKD is undeniable. CVD accounts for more than 50\% of all morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney disease who have undergone renal replacement therapy, and CVD is also prevalent in patients with mild and moderately severe kidney disease. To help address the elevated risks of these patients, primary care physicians need to maintain vigilance in (1) identifying patients who have CKD and (2) implementing strategies for reducing the prevalence of CVD in this population. It is essential that patients be screened for relatively mild kidney disease by measurement of serum creatinine and urine microalbumin and by calculation of the glomerular filtration rate in mL/min/1.73 m2 using equations based on serum creatinine. Rigorous assessment of conventional risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes, is also necessary to prevent the poor outcomes currently observed in persons with CKD. Routine use of ACE inhibitors and aspirin is encouraged in all patients with CKD, and strict glycemic and blood pressure control is recommended for optimal outcomes. In addition, patients should be screened and treated for risk factors particularly associated with kidney disease and CVD morbidity and mortality, including anemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Finally, physicians should be careful to avoid therapeutic nihilism in patients with kidney disease; those at highest risk of CVD are likely to receive the greatest benefit from cardiovascular therapies.
This article was published in Postgrad Med
and referenced in Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis