Author(s): Van Biljon G
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Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the causes, prognostic factors and treatment results of acute renal failure (ARF) in children admitted to the Pretoria Academic Hospital from 1986 to 2002. A retrospective chart review of 102 children (mean age 37 months) was done. Various factors were analysed including age, sex, causes of ARF, morbidity, mortality, dialysis requirement and outcome. Peritoneal dialysis was the only form of dialysis available. Patients were categorized as those who survived without dialysis or in whom renal function recovered without the need for continuing dialysis (Group I, termed 'survivors'), and those who died or remained dialysis dependent (Group II, termed 'non-survivors'). The most common causes of ARF were haemolytic uraemic syndrome (35.3\%), acute tubular necrosis (31.4\%) and acute glomerulonephritis (15.7\%). There were 77 patients in Group I of whom 38 required dialysis, and 25 in Group II of whom 16 were dialysed. Fifteen patients in Group II died and 10 remained dialysis dependent ('renal deaths'). Only four patients with 'renal death' received long-term dialysis. Coma (P < 0.001), liver dysfunction (P < 0.009), a clotting deficiency (P < 0.001), respiratory failure (P < 0.001) and multi-organ failure (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with poor outcome. These factors should be taken into account before initiating dialysis in children in countries where available resources for long-term dialysis are limited.
This article was published in J Trop Pediatr
and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics