Author(s): Lu Y, Cai Z, Xiao G, Liu Y, Keller ET,
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Abstract Although the primary role of chemokines and their receptors is controlling the trafficking of leukocytes during inflammatory responses, they also play pleoitropic roles in cancer development. There is emerging evidence that cancer cells produce chemokines that induce tumor cell proliferation or chemotaxis in various cancer types. We have previously reported that MCP-1 acts as a paracrine and autocrine factor for prostate cancer (PCa) growth and invasion. As the cellular effects of MCP-1 are mediated by CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), we hypothesized that CCR2 may contribute PCa progression. Accordingly, we first determined CCR2 mRNA and protein expression in various cancer cell lines, including PCa and other cancer types. All cells expressed CCR2 mRNA and protein, but in PCa, more aggressive cancer cells such as C4-2B, DU145, and PC3 expressed a higher amount of CCR2 compared with the less aggressive cancer cells such as LNCaP or non-neoplastic PrEC and RWPE-1 cells. Further, we found a positive correlation between CCR2 expression and PCa progression by analyzing an ONCOMINE gene array database. We confirmed that CCR2 mRNA was highly expressed in PCa metastatic tissues compared with the localized PCa or benign prostate tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Finally, CCR2 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray specimens from 96 PCa patients and 31 benign tissue controls. We found that CCR2 expression correlated with Gleason score and clinical pathologic stages, whereas lower levels of CCR2 were expressed in normal prostate tissues. These results suggest that CCR2 may contribute to PCa development.
This article was published in J Cell Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology